A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Abrasion

Measurable thinning of an organic coating film due to succesive mechanical destruction such as scratching and impacts.

Abrasion resistance

Measure of endurance/resistance of organic coatings to abrasion.

Taber abrasion test

Test for evaluating the abrasion resistance of paint films. A certain mass loaded abrading wheel rolls on painted panel mounted on a on a rotating turntable. After a certain number of revolutions, weight loss due to abrasion is determined.

Measure of endurance/resistance of organic coatings to abrasion.
 

Thermoplastic copolymer of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene that easily softens and deforms when heated.

Complete incorporation of another substance or energy into a matter. (e.g., Absorption of resin into the plastered surface, absorption of sun light by black object, s.o.)

Tests that aim to accelerate the destructive effects of external factors compared to those under normal conditions by increasing the intensity of those factors. (e.g., accelerated setttling tendency test or accelerated corrosion test and so on).

Acetyl acetone

Chemical name: 2,4-pentanedion
Chemical formula:

Boiling point: 140ºC, Specific gravity: 0,975, Refractive index:1,452, Flash point: 34ºC

Acetone

Strong solvent for cellulose derived resins, polyvinyl acetate, short oil alkyd resins and natural resins.
Chemical name: Propane-2-on, dimethylketone
Chemical formula: 
Boiling point: 56,2°C; evaporation number relative to ether: 2,1; specific gravity: 0,791; refractive index: 1,3587; flash point: <-20°C

Diacetone alcohol

Solvent, of both ketone and alcohol character, obtained from condensation reaction of two acetone molecules and utilized in cellulose derived resins and epoxy based coatings.
Chemical name: 4-hydroxy-4-methyl pentane-2-one.
Chemical formula: 


 

Boiling point: 167,9°C; evaporation number relative to ether: 135; specific gravity: 0,938; refractive index: 1,4241; flash point: 58°C

Chemical name: 2,4-pentanedion
 

Chemical formula:

Boiling point: 140ºC, Specific gravity: 0,975, Refractive index:1,452, Flash point: 34ºC

Type of catalysts that are most widely used for the polimerisation of amino-formaldehyde resins with some other resins such as alkyds, polyesters and acrylic. Weak organic acids of low water solubility are prefered in order to prevent weakening of water resistance of the coating.

Removal of oils and oxide layers on a surface with acid solutions, either by saponification of oils to obtain water soluble soaps or by formation of water soluble salts from oxides. Chromic acid and phosphoric acid are especially prefered for surface cleaning because they form metal chromate or metal phosphate layers strongly adhering to the metal and behave as electrochemically inactive metals rather than dissolving the metal oxide layers like most of the other acids do.

Endurance/resistance of coating films to the harmful effects of acids.
 

Measure of amount of acid groups present in a chemical. In coating industry, acid value of binders are widely mentioned. Acid value is defined as the amount of potassium hydroxide (KOH) in mg needed to neutralise the acid groups present in 1 gram of solid resin (e.g. 30 mg KOH/g solid resin).

Acrylic monomer used in synthesis of acrylic resins with amide functional groups. Polyacrylamide polymers can be synthesized to carry a carboxylic acid functional group and can cross-link with epoxy resins. In addition, self cross-linking acrylamide resins can be synthesized by copolymerization of acrylamide and monomers carrying hydroxyl functional groups.

The most widely used acidic monomer in acrylic polymer synthesis.
Chemical name: Propenoic acid, vinyl formic acid
Chemical formula:

Melting point: 13°C; Boiling point: 142°C

Methacrylic acid

An acidic monomer commonly used in the synthesis of acrylic polymers.
Chemical formula:

Melting point: 14°C; Boiling point: 163°C

Class of resins formed by addition polymerisation of acrylic and metacrylic acids and their esters over their ethylene double bonds with the help of free radicals. If acrylic acid esters and metacrylic acid esters have functional groups, the resulting is a thermoset acrylic resin, or else, the product is a thermoplastic acrylic resin. Solvent soluble, water-thinnable, water emulsion types are available.

Thermoplastic acrylic resins

See Acrylic resins

 

Minimum amount of energy required to initiate a chemical reaction at a certain temperature.

Polymerization of unsaturated reactive molecules by addition over their unsaturated sections via activation by chemicals, also known as initiators. Addition polymerization is comprised of four steps: Initiation, propagation, chain transfer and termination. Addition polymerization reactions forming free radicals, organic cations or organic anions via initiators are named as follows: Free radical polymerization, Cationic polymerization, Anionic polymerization.

Fluorocarbon surface additives

Similar to polysiloxane surface additives; fluorocarbon surface additives, having low surface tensions and compatibility with the coating formulation, migrate to the surface to avoid formation of film defects.
 

Wetting and dispersing additives

General name for additives that are used to (a) perform dispersion of pigments and fillers using less energy in shorter time, (b) increase dispersion stability in the fluid composed of resin and solvent.

Anti-skinning agents

General name for additives used in oxygen-cured coatings to prevent skinning of mentioned coatings in their containers during their shelf life.

Additives

General name for coating formulation inputs that constitute maximum two percent of the formulation causing dramatic changes in technical properties of coatings. Additives are used to obtain required properties during production, application, storage and shelf life.

Matting agents / Flattening additivess / Matting additives

Mattness, which is the reflection of incident light in a broad range of angles, can be imparted using some additives. These additives are mainly micronized silicon particles and various types of polymer waxes

Polyacrylate surface additives

Surface additives that prevent defects by forming a thin continuous layer on the surface. These additives are designed with limited compatibility with the paint binders and solvents so that they can migrate to the surface. 

Polymeric dispersing additives

Dispersion additives having a branched/chained backbone which is compatible with paint resins and solvents in addition to having pigment affinic groups. Owing to their large molecules, polymeric dispersing additives form a layer around the pigment molecule they attach to so that other pigments are prevented from coming close. Therefore, they provide dispersion stabilization by steric hindrance.

Polysiloxane surface additives

General name of surface additives that prevent surface defects like craters, orange peel, telegraphing etc. by virtue of their compatibility with paint ingredients as well as lower surface tension they have than other paint ingredients

Rheology modifiers

Additives that modify the film behaviour of organic coatings during production, storage and application. These additives impart shear thinning and thixotropic behaviour to wet paint.

Silicon additives / Silicon based surface additives

See polysiloxane surface additives

Surface additives

Surface additives are added to paint formulation to prevent film defects. They either have surface tensions lower than paint ingredients (silicone and fluoride compounds) or they are compounds having limited compatibility. They migrate to the surface and form a thin layer. Hence, surface tension gradients that cause defects on paint film are prevented.

Intercoat adhesion failure

Coating defect described by the insufficient adhesion observed between the successive layers of a coating system. Successive application of chemically incompatible layers, and degradation of surface active compounds due to overbaking of lower layers can be typical factors causing intercoat adhesion failure.

Tape adhesion test

Test performed to measure the degree of adhesion of the organic coating film to the surface after application and drying of the coating. Adhesion performance is checked by adhering a tape to the thoroughly cut coating film and pulling away rapidly to determine whether the coating comes off and if it does, to what extent it does.

Adhesion

State in which two surfaces (i.e., solid-liquid or solid-another solid) held together by attractive forces. Components that results in adhesion are: (a) mechanical component, (b) chemical component, (c) dispersion component, (d) electrostatic component and (e) diffusion component. In any adhesion event, all or some of the components play a role.

Adhesion promoter / Adhesion promoter primer

Primers applied as a thin layer to promote interlaminar adhesion on surfaces difficult to adhere. The surfaces difficult to adhere are mainly polyolefinic structured plastic surfaces like polyethylene and polypropylene etc. and some aluminium alloy surfaces. Examples of adhesion promoters are chlorinated polyolefin, organosilanes and polyvinylbutyral based primers.

Primers applied as a thin layer to promote interlaminar adhesion on surfaces difficult to adhere. The surfaces difficult to adhere are mainly polyolefinic structured plastic surfaces like polyethylene and polypropylene etc. and some aluminium alloy surfaces. Examples of adhesion promoters are chlorinated polyolefin, organosilanes and polyvinylbutyral based primers.

Polyacid that is obtained by oxidation of cyclohexane and that improves the flexibility of the polyester resins while weakening the water resistance when used in the synthesis of polyester resins.
Chemical formula: 

Melting point: 153°C

Adhesion of material as a thin molecular layer, to a solid or liquid surface, it is in contact with.

Aerospace coatings include primers, top coats and specialty coatings to paint the interior and exterior surfaces as well as various parts of airplanes. Need for high mechanical strength neccessitates the use of low density materials, made use of aluminium alloys, plastic composites and titanium widespread in aerospace coatings. During flights, airplanes are subjected to high grade UV exposure without protected by clouds. Moreover, sudden temperature change is another important parameter. Therefore, in aerospace coatings, primers with good surface adhesion as well as topcoats with high UV durability and flexibility are employed. Aluminium and alloys are preferred because of their low density and high mechanical strength in addition to corrosion resistant nature and their ease of production. Together with aluminium, composite materials produced from different types of engineering polymers and reinforcing materials, magnesium, titanium, and steel are used.

Equipment that burns the otherwise emitted solvent vapors produced during baking the oven-cured coatings rather than emitting the vapors to the environment. The heat formed in the afterburners is used by heat exchangers to pre-heat the air used for burning, reducing the energy consumption.

Lightly packed cluster of pigment particles formed by contacts of the corners of the particles with resultant air pockets between the particles.
 

See Also Clusters of pigments and extenders

Although pigments and extenders are produced as primary particles, they form aggregates and agglomerates when they are in touch with each other in bulk phase. In dispersion stage, these pigment clusters are tried to break down to primary particles. If dispersed pigments are not stable, they form loosely combined units called flocculates. Since, the distinction between these three terms might not be clear, for a better understanding a schematic representation is given below.




See Also Aggregate, Agglomerate, Flocculate

Strongly packed cluster of pigment particles that are formed through intense contact of particle surfaces. Breaking down to primary particles needs high amount of energy only accessible by grinding.
 

See Also Clusters of pigments and extenders

Although pigments and extenders are produced as primary particles, they form aggregates and agglomerates when they are in touch with each other in bulk phase. In dispersion stage, these pigment clusters are tried to break down to primary particles. If dispersed pigments are not stable, they form loosely combined units called flocculates. Since, the distinction between these three terms might not be clear, for a better understanding a schematic representation is given below.



See Also Aggregate, Agglomerate, Flocculate

Agitator / Mixer

Equipment used to homogenize the coating during production or before application and is composed of an engine, a mill attached perpendicularly to the engine and a mixer knife attached to the mill. Depending on the mixer knife type, propeller type, serrated type, anchor type mixers are used.

High speed dispersers

During the paint production, either in premix or in difficult homogenising processes, high-speed dispersers are utilized. Cowles type dissolver discs are typically used in high-speed dissolvers.

General name for organic coatings that can lead to dry rigid films at ambient conditions without any assistance after application. Coatings that form films by solvent evaporation and oxidative drying are characterized as “air drying”, since they appear to dry with no assistance.

Applications based on breaking and spraying the liquid paint in tiny droplets to surfaces with the help of pressurized air. Spray applications performed by air spray guns using pressurized air at 2,5-5,5 atm. are widely used especially for industrial coating applications. In air spray applications, paint is sprayed in droplets of 20-50 micron diameter.

Spraying of paint through a thin nozzle at 5-35 atm pressure. In airless spray applications, the paint can be sprayed as droplets of 70-150 micrometer diameter by means of an airless spray gun. The bouncing effect and related paint loss is less compared to air spraying applications.

Class of organic compounds defined by the general formula R-OH, where R demonstrates an alkyl group.
 

General name for solvents having a linear structure and are able to dissolve low polarity binders such as long oil alkyd resins. These types of solvents are produced from distillation of high aliphatic content petroleum. Hexane, heptane and white spirit are a few of the aliphatic hydrocarbon solvents

Resistance of organic coating films against the destructive effect of chemicals with basic character. Basic chemicals causes structural breakdown of ester resins (e.g. alkyd and polyester resins) and some organic pigments.

Cleaning of metal surfaces with aqueous alkaline solutions to get rid of all kinds of oil, especially rolling oils. The oil on the surface is dissolved and removed by saponification with the help of alkaline surface cleaners usually held at temperatures higher than the room temperature.

See Also Degreasing

Grease on surfaces to be coated, causes poor adhesion for all types of coatings. Therefore, before application, it is important that grease of all kinds should be removed from the surface. First method to degrease before paint application is, wiping/washing the surface with a rag wet with solvent or with a brush. The second method is to remove grease by saponification from the surface by applying hot alkali solution.

Alkyd Resins

Class of resins obtained by reaction of polyols and polyacids with oils or mono-functional fatty acids. Their structure is composed of a polyester backbone of polyols and polyacids and monofunctional fatty acids added to the backbone. They are defined as drying, semi-drying and non-drying according to the fatty acid type added to the backbone; and as short oil, medium oil and long oil according to the fatty acid amount.

Non-drying alkyd resins

Alkyd resins that contain saturated fatty acids on their backbone. Since non-drying alkyd resins do not polymerize oxidatively via oxygen of air, they are used in oven-cured coatings that crosslink with amino resins and in two-pack coatings that cures via isocyanate based hardeners.

Drying alkyd resins

Alkyd resins, that contain two or more unsaturated fatty acids on their backbone, tend to form films that harden by air oxygen. Alkyd resins, containing fatty acids with average drying index of 70 or higher, are classified as drying alkyd resins.

Semi-drying alkyd resins

Alkyd resins containing semi-drying oils in their backbone.

Aluminum pigments are used to create a metallic effect on painted surfaces. They are composed of pure aluminum platelets of 10-30 micrometers diameter and of 0,1-0,9 micrometer thickness.

See Effect pigments

Pigments added to coating formulations to provide an appealing look, besides coloring the coating. For this purpose, aluminum pigments and mica based pearlescent pigments of platelet shape are widely used. There is a special aesthetical expectation from basecoat applications containing metalic or pearlescent (or micaceous) pigments: the flip-flop property. This coating property, formed by parallel allignment of aluminum or pearlescent platelets to the surface, leads to a mirror-like appearance when looked from the front, and to a dark color appearance when looked from a very low angle. Transparency of the film formed by binders enhances the flip-flop effect

General name for compounds of inorganic or organic nature that are formed by substitution of one of the hydrogen molecules of ammonia with another element or an acyl group (RCO+). In coatings industry, amides of organic nature are utilised in cross-linking of epoxy resins.

Commercial solvent comprised of two of the eight isomers of penthanol structures of which are given below:
 

Boiling range: 133-139°C; evaporation number relative to ether: 65; specific gravity: 0,812-0,817; refractive index: 1,410-1,411; flash point: 43°C
 

See Electrophoresis

Process of migration of electrically charged emulsified particles to the oppositely charged electrode and deposition on the electrode under an electrical current. If the material migration under the influence of the electric field occurs by movement of (+) charged particles to cathode, the process is called cataphoresis. Similarly, if (-) charged particles move towards the anode, the process is called anaphoresis.

Cataphoresis

Physicochemical process that occurs as deposition of positively charged organic polymer particles, previously suspended in aqueous medium, after migrating to cathode of the electrolytic circuit under direct current and being reduced at the cathode. See Also Cataphoretic coatings

Type of electrophoretic coating in which the object to be coated is connected to the electrolysis circuit as the anode and, thus, is coated with the negatively charged paint molecules.

See Also Electrodeposition coatings

Coating of an object with paint particles after dipping into an emulsion paint bath as an electrode and applying external current.
 

Crystalline form of titanium dioxide with a lower refractive index (2,488) compared to that of rutile form (2,609) the other crystalline form. Therefore, considering the refractive index of organic binders are generally between 1,40 and 1,60, hiding power of films with anatase type is much less than that of films with rutile type titanium dioxide.

General name for fats stored in animal bodies and formed by reaction of three hydroxyl groups of glycerine with animal fatty acids, especially stearic acid.

The electrode in an electrochemical circuit where oxidation reaction occurs.

Sacrificial anode

Valuable metal objects, which need to be protected, are connected to electrochemically more active metals or alloys to construct a corrosion circuit. In that case, the active metal behaves as the anode and is depleted by corrosion at a certain rate. Meanwhile, the other metal is protected from corrosion. The material connected to the circuit to behave as the anode is called the sacrificial anode.

See Anaphoretic coating

Anaphoretic coatings / Anodic electrodeposition coatings

Type of electrophoretic coating in which the object to be coated is connected to the electrolysis circuit as the anode and, thus, is coated with the negatively charged paint molecules. See Also Electrodeposition coatings

Slowdown of electrochemical processes in an electrolysis circuit, as a result of increased circuit resistance due to accumulation of a liquid or gas layer with a comparably high electrical resistance on anodic surface.

Objects made of aluminum are connected to an electrolysis circuit as the anode and an oxide layer with good adhesion, high barrier and corrosion resistance is formed. This process is called eloxal (Electrolytic Oxidation of Aluminum) and the resulting surfaces are called eloxal surfaces.

Coatings with the main function of protecting the applied surface against corrosion. Anticorrosive paints avoid corrosion through the binders, pigments and additives in their composition. Water-resistant binders with good metal adhesion, anticorrosive pigments inactivating and protecting the metal surface, additives improving the water-resistance or protecting the metal by electrochemical means are used for anticorrosive coating purposes.

Functional pigments added to the paint formulation in order to improve the corrosion resistance of the paint. Most widely used anticorrosive pigments are: chromates, phosphate, phosphosilicate and borosilicate salts, having controlled water solubilities and inactivating the metal surfaces; zinc powder, cathodically protecting the coated metal surfaces; and micaceous iron oxide (MIO or MIOX), having a plate-like structure and acting as a water barrier for metal surfaces.

Coatings applied to submerged surfaces in order to avoid accumulation of certain organisms, their residues and the fouling associated with those residues.

General name for additives used in oxygen-cured coatings to prevent skinning of mentioned coatings in their containers during their shelf life.

Name of the roller which transfers the paint to the sheet to be coated on the conveyor belt. If the application roller runs in the same direction (at different speed) with the conveyor line, the process is called direct roller application, if roller runs in the opposite direction it is called reverse roller application. See Also Direct roller application, Reverse roller application

Direct roller application

Type of roller applications, which are based on coating flat panels with rollers on a moving conveyer. In direct roller applications, rotation direction of “application roll” is the same as the conveyer’s moving direction. Having a lower shear than reverse roller application, direct roller application provides good results in primer and non-glossy top coat applications. See Also Reverse roller application, Roller coating applications

Reverse roller application

Paint application method where the applicator rolls run in the opposite direction to the conveyor movement. In this application, better levelling is achieved on the surface because sheer stress exerted on the paint film is higher than in direct rolling application. Reverse roller application method is preferred especially in glossy topcoats. See Also Roller coating applications, Direct roller application

The most suitable viscosity at which paint can be applied by the chosen method with ease.

General name for architectural and constructional coatings that have primary function of decorating interior and exterior parts of buildings, and secondary function of protection. They are also known as decorative coatings.

Common name of strong solvents -with a benzene ring on their structure- for dissolving many of the binders, especially alkyd, polyester and acrylic resins. They are obtained from distillation of fossil fuels, especially from high aromatic content petroleum (e.g, Toluene, Xylene, Solvent naphtha etc.).
 

Ash content is determined by heating the organic coating material up to the temperature at which its binder decomposes or burns. For this purpose, a 2 gr sample is heated at 800°C for 5-6 hours, and ash content is calculated as the percentage ratio of residual ash amount to the original sample amount.

Additives, with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts, that establish secondary bonds with waterborne coating binders by means of the repulsive forces applied by water to their hydophobic parts. These secondary bonds cause a viscosity increase that can be easily reversed by shear.

hydrophilic

General name of materials that have a tendency to absorb water or a strong affinity to water.

hydrophobic parts

General name of materials that do not have a tendency to absorb water or a strong affinity to water.

Abbreviation for American Society for Testing and Materials. ASTM is a highly respected organisation, its specifications, standards and recommendations regarding material properties and their test methods are widely accepted worldwide by paint industry as well as many other industries.

Breaking of the wet paint into tiny droplets while being sprayed onto the surface. In air spray applications, droplets of 20-50 micrometers are obtained from atomization with the help of high pressure air. In airless spray applications, paint particles, compressed under 5-35 atm pressure, are broken into smaller pieces by the air molecules they collide with after leaving the nozzle. However, in airless spray applications, an atomization fineness of 70-150 micrometers is considered satisfactory.

Vast majority of automotive components used at manufacturing plants where the main purpose is to produce cars in rapid assembly lines, are produced at various automotive component plants. Putties, primers, top coats and clear coats used for painting metal or plastic parts like engines, radiators, filters, seats, mirrors, bumpers, interior plastic parts, rims, hubcaps etc. are called automotive component coatings. In addition to paints applied to original vehicle components, paints applied to spare parts especially during the service-life of vehicle are also considered as automotive component coatings.

Paints applied to automotive products in OEMs' paintshops for bringing protection and visual attraction to cars. Nowadays, coating system of a passenger car is composed of following layers with their functions given in parenthesis.
1) Cathodic Electro Deposition (CED) primer applied by dipping (to provide high corrosion resistance).
2) Primer surfacer applied by spraying (to increase stone chip resistance and to smooth the surface for topcoating).
3) Top coat layers applied by spraying (to increase exterior durability of coating system and to bring an appearance with glossy and attractive colors that last for long periods).

Cathodic Electrodeposition Coatings (CED)

Organic coatings formed by coating of an object- having a conductive surface- connected to a circuit as the cathode by positively charged paint particles suspended in aqueous medium under direct current. Cathodic electrodeposition coatings are most widely utilized for automotive coatings. Perfect adhesion enables superior corrosion resistance. These coatings are also known as cataphoretic coatings.

Cedar (in latin: Cedrus Libani A. Rich)

Its wood is resistant to weather conditions and decaying. The odor of cedar oil keeps moths away therefore it is used for the production of wardrobes as solid wood or veneer. Besides, due to its odor absorption property, shoe cabinets are made of cedar. Some types of cedar wood are used to produce guitar body and headstock.
 

Chemical groups which can be presented in the structure of pigments and dyestuffs and can contribute to color of the compound together with main chromophore groups.